Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is sudden damage to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head. Common causes include car or motorcycle crashes, falls, sports injuries, and assaults. TBI is the leading cause of death and disability among people aged 1 to 44. Injuries can range from mild concussions to severe permanent brain damage. The consequences of a brain injury can affect all aspects of a person's life, including physical and mental abilities as well as emotions and personality. While treatment for mild TBI may include rest and medication, severe TBI may require intensive care and life-saving emergency surgery.
Most people who suffer moderate to severe TBI will need rehabilitation to recover and relearn skills.What is a traumatic brain injury?TBI is an injury to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head from blunt or penetrating trauma. The injury that occurs at the moment of impact is known as the primary injury. Primary injuries can involve a specific lobe of the brain or can involve the entire brain. Sometimes the skull may be fractured, but not always. During the impact of an accident, the brain crashes back and forth inside the skull causing bruising, bleeding, and tearing of nerve fibers (Fig. 1). Immediately after the accident the person may be confused, not remember what happened, have blurry vision and dizziness, or lose consciousness. At first the person may appear fine, but their condition can decline rapidly. After the initial impact occurs, the brain undergoes a delayed trauma – it swells – pushing itself against the skull and reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood.
published by: Mayfield Clinic TBI Overview